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Cultural section

Art

Iran has one of the richest art heritages in world history and encompasses many disciplines including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and stonemasonry. There is also a very vibrant Iranian modern and contemporary art scene.

Iranian art has gone through numerous phases of evolution. The unique aesthetics of Iran is evident from the Achaemenid reliefs in Persepolis to the mosaic paintings of Bishapur. The Islamic era drastically brought changes to the styles and practice of the arts, each dynasty with its own particular foci. The Qajarid era was the last stage of classical Persian art, before modernism was imported and suffused into elements of traditionalist schools of aesthetics.

Holidays in Iran

The Persian year begins in the vernal equinox: if the astronomical vernal equinox comes before noon, then the present day is the first day of the Persian year. If the equinox falls after noon, then the next day is the official first day of the Persian year. The Persian Calendar, which is the official calendar of Iran, is a solar calendar with a starting point that is the same as the Islamic calendar. According to the Iran Labor Code, Friday is the weekly day of rest. Government official working hours are from Saturday to Wednesday (from 8 am to 4 pm).

              

Although the date of certain holidays in Iran are not exact (due to the calendar system they use, most of these holidays are around the same time). Some of the major public holidays in Iran include Oil Nationalization Day (March 21), Nowrooz—which is the Iranian equivalent of New Years (March 31), the Prophet’s Birthday and Imam Sadeq (June 4), and the Death of Imam Khomeini (June 5). Additional holidays include The Anniversary of the Uprising against the Shah (January 30), Ashoura (February 11), Victory of the 1979 Islamic Revolution (April 2), Sizdah-Bedar—Public Outing Day to end Nowrooz (April 1), and Islamic Republic Day (January 20).

Cinema:

With 300 international awards in the past 10 years, films from Iran continue to be celebrated worldwide. The best known Persian directors are Abbas Kiarostami, Majid Majidi, and Asghar Farhadi.

  

Iranian architecture

There are countless numbers of traditional tea-houses (chai khooneh) throughout Iran, and each province features its own unique cultural presentation of this ancient tradition. However, there are certain traits which are common to all tea-houses, especially the most visible aspects, strong chai (tea) and the ever-present ghalyan hookah. Almost all tea-houses serve baqleh, steam boiled fava beans (in the pod), served with salt and vinegar, as well as a variety of desserts and pastries. Many tea-houses also serve full meals, typically a variety of kebabs as well as regional specialties.

Persian Gardens

The Persian Garden was designed as a reflection of paradise on earth; the word "garden" itself coming from Persian roots. The special place of the garden in the Iranian heart can be seen in their architecture, in the ruins of Iran, and in their paintings.

            

Cuisine

Cuisine in Iran is considered to be one of the most ancient forms of cuisine around the world. Bread is arguably the most important food in Iran, with a large variety of different bread, some of the most popular of which include: nan and hamir, which are baked in large clay ovens (also called “tenurs”). In Iranian cuisine, there are many dishes that are made from dairy products. One of the most popular of which includes yoghurt (“mast”)—which has a specific fermentation process that is widely put to use amongst most Iranians. In addition, mast is used to make both soup and is vital in the production of oil. In addition to these dairy products, Iranian cuisine involves a lot of dishes cooked from rice. Iranians believe that rice grain contains the inscription “it is the god”. By eating rice grains, Iranians feel as though they are getting closer to their creator. Some popular rice dishes include boiled rice with a variety of ingredients such as meats, vegetables, and seasonings (“plov”) including dishes like chelo-horesh, shish kebab with rice, chelo-kebab, rice with lamb, meatballs with rice, and kofte (plain boiled rice). In addition, Iranian cuisine is famous for its sweets. One of the most famous of which includes “baklava” with almonds, cardamom, and egg yolks. Iranian sweets typically involve the use of honey, cinnamon, lime juice, and sprouted wheat grain.

        

One very popular dessert drink in Iran, “sherbet sharbat-portagal”, is made from a mixture of orange peel and orange juice boiled in thin sugar syrup and diluted with rose water. Just like the people of many Middle Eastern countries the most preferred drink of the people of Iran is tea (without milk) or “kakhve-khana”.

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